Offender-Based Policing and “pulling levers” strategies

I’m copying this information Bureau of Justice Assistance (archive.org) website as it provides insight into possible framework of this phenomena as “organized stalking” in USA. There is very little information that would put gangstalking in context of current policing practices, methods and strategies. Most of the information steer you away from looking into existing practices and instead divert attention to something exotic or outdated that cannot be examined. I’m not saying that “pulling levers” strategy is “gangstalking”, but it could be especially if abused or misused.

Offender-based policing strategies are used by law enforcement agencies to address crime by focusing efforts and resources on the persons committing the crimes. These so-called “pulling levers” strategies are based on research that has shown that a relatively small number of offenders are responsible for a large number of the crimes that are committed.1 The logic behind these strategies is that violent, gun and drug crime can be reduced by identifying and targeting these offenders. Once identified, the offenders receive a direct and explicit message that is intended to deter them from future criminal behavior. This message is designed to inform the offender that police are aware of their illegal activities and if they continue engage in this behavior, there will be swift and certain legal sanctions. If the targeted offenders respond positively, they are provided with a variety of social services. If they fail to heed the deterrence message, they are subject to an array of enforcement actions. These enforcement actions are the “levers” that can be “pulled” in response to the offenders’ continued criminal behavior. Though these strategies are often considered approaches to policing, they usually involve other actors in the criminal justice system, such as prosecutors. Some of these strategies also fall under the rubric of Smart Policing.

The “pulling levers” strategy has been described as a six-step process. These steps are: 1) selecting a target behavior; 2) bringing together the criminal justice and other agencies that will be involved; 3) delivering a direct and explicit deterrence message to the targeted group; 4) following through with the effort; 5) continuing to communicate with the target group; and 6) selecting a new target behavior once the original behavior has been controlled.2 While specific offender-based policing strategies may vary, these strategies often include some or all of the following elements:

  • Police-community partnerships
  • Interagency working groups (police, prosecution, courts)
  • Partnerships with researchers
  • General and focused deterrence messages
  • Social services delivery

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Despite the encouraging results reported in multiple studies, there is much to learn about offender-based policing strategies. These strategies are diverse, encompassing an array of approaches that have many different elements and they target a variety of offender types. Further research is needed to better understand the interaction between these elements and the impact that they have on various groups of offenders.

While evaluation results from these initiatives appear to be promising, it is important to understand that program design and research in this area is evolving. The majority of evaluations to date have employed quasi-experimental designs; as a result, it is not possible to rule out alternative explanations for the observed outcomes. The fact that crime declined in many cities during the period in which these efforts took place further complicates the task of demonstrating a cause and effect relationship between offender-based policing strategies and a decline in crime. Until offender-based policing strategies are evaluated more rigorously, it is impossible to say that these strategies are anything more than a promising approach to addressing specific crime problems amongst targeted groups of offenders.

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Many evaluations of offender-based policing strategies employ a time series design. While this method is useful for demonstrating changes before and after the implementation of an intervention, it can present some challenges. To establish a good baseline and to demonstrate the change in the targeted variable, the researcher must examine a large number of data points, which requires collecting data over an extended period of time (for example, monthly data over a period of several years). This data collection process can often be a time and resource intensive activity.

There is posted  1 hour long webinar where police discuss strategies about targeting offenders , making lists, logistics, etc.. Scott Decker, Ph.D., Director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University voices concerns about the targeting system, but not because it could be abused, but that it can be challenged from many different points including legal (around 27:00 min into it). They have fully operation program in place, but struggle even with defining criteria for person to be included in the list (around 26 min lady).

http://www.smartpolicinginitiative.com/tta/targeting-offenders-june-2011-0 (archive.org)

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2 thoughts on “Offender-Based Policing and “pulling levers” strategies

  1. I never had any “direct and explicit deterrence message”. Nor were there any incentives/carrots for discontinuing the perceived offense (street photography). I just stopped completely photographing and then the punishment began.

    Did you ever receive anything tantamount to an “explicit deterrence message”?

  2. No. Never received any direct deterrence messages. I wish. Just like you being logical i was trying to use “cause and affect” route. It didn’t make any sense, except deliberately designed purgatory without any routes of mediation or escape. That was one of the main reasons why I came back to live in the place where it all started.
    I’m just looking at possible frameworks that could be exploited to facilitate organized stalking as by-product of new policing doctrines. It’s not only the disruption tactics themselves that are interesting, but how do they fit in the bigger picture where application of such tactics would make sense, both in the eyes of the police and eyes of the communities at large. Also examining possible ways of it being influenced by parties that would benefit of my demise in case such measures are successful. Look at the last two paragraphs:

    https://www.bja.gov/evaluation/program-law-enforcement/offender2.htm
    Despite the encouraging results reported in multiple studies, there is much to learn about offender-based policing strategies. These strategies are diverse, encompassing an array of approaches that have many different elements and they target a variety of offender types. Further research is needed to better understand the interaction between these elements and the impact that they have on various groups of offenders.

    While evaluation results from these initiatives appear to be promising, it is important to understand that program design and research in this area is evolving. The majority of evaluations to date have employed quasi-experimental designs; as a result, it is not possible to rule out alternative explanations for the observed outcomes.

    The statement is vague and could be misinterpreted, but the doctrines are being actively developed both as preventive,policing and at the same time social control measure. Social control aspect is especially intriguing and worrisome. Many times they mention that some tactics and methods wouldn’t be considered legal, but I doubt they will be discussed in the open apart of the (appearance of) solving problems that make them look good. If they are discussed the vocabulary will probably be different as in one recommendation i saw “instead of using coercive suppression, use social pressure” (not verbatim).

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